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L. lactis, widely used in fermented food production, can be employed as an in vivo drug delivery system. This system is applicable to oral insulin delivery, where the traditional need for two-chain synthesis, protein purification, and temperature-sensitive storage can be bypassed with this technology. An oral delivery route is non-invasive compared to the current standard of diabetes treatment and results in higher bioavailability because of reduced enzymatic degradation. The researchers demonstrated that the induction time prior to the introduction of nisin for gene transcription is important for the growth of L. lactis. Optimization of the signal peptide Usp45sp will allow the secretion potential of L. lactis to be further exploited.