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The investigators have established, in a large cohort of heart failure patients, that circulating neuregulin-1beta is independently associated with heart failure severity and transplant-free survival. They have also shown that the association of adverse outcomes tied to circulating neuregulin-1beta levels was independent of BNP levels. Patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity have significantly lower amounts of neuregulin-1beta in circulation. This biomarker may therefore offer powerful diagnostic, prognostic and risk-stratification benefits in heart failure patients as well as in cases of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity.