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Drs. Epstein, Gruber, and Abdullah have shown several histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, epigenetic regulators, reduce the risk of and help heal ischemic injuries in animal models. The HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, small molecules such as Trichostatin A, reverse the effects of myocardial infarction by reducing infarction volume. The use of the epigenetic regulators alone, or in combination with known ischemic injury treatments, has therapeutic potential, and offers increased therapeutic efficacy for the healing or prevention of ischemic injuries such as heart attacks.