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Sleep Practices and Attitudes Questionnaire (SPAQ)

This questionnaire assesses habitual sleep; behaviors associated with sleep and potential sleep problems.



Healthy sleep is a domain of healthy behavior that is largely overlooked by the existing health behavior literature and assessments. Recently, two separate reports have acknowledged the public health impact of sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. The assessment and surveillance of sleep health is increasingly recognized, however, the appropriate assessment tools are still missing.



This questionnaire assesses habitual sleep; behaviors associated with sleep and potential sleep problems; sleep hygiene; social and environmental determinants of sleep; beliefs and attitudes about sleep as it relates to health, safety, and functioning, and knowledge about sleep. The SPAQ includes factors at the individual level, but also at the community level, which may influence an individual to engage in a particular sleep behavior on a habitual basis. This approach has been employed in other public health arenas  (e.g., diet, physical activity, and tobacco) and represents a social-ecological approach to health issues on a macrolevel.



Michael Grandner



  • First comprehensive instrument to investigate factors proximal to sleep behavior.
  • The SPAQ includes components of social norm, sleep knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs – all of which can be concurrently influenced from a variety of venues.
  • The SPAQ enables characterization on how an individual relates to sleep and sleep-related behavior, with potential of uncovering therapeutic targets. 

Stage of Development:

The questionnaire has been developed and published in peer reviewed journal. 


Intellectual Property:



Reference Media:

Grandner et al., Behav Sleep Med. 2014 Mar 4;12(2):123-42


Desired Partnerships:



Docket # 15-7275 


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Patent Information:
For Information, Contact:
Neal Lemon
Associate Director, PSOM Licensing Group
University of Pennsylvania
Michael Grandner