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The pro IGF-1 form is more potent and demonstrates enhanced IGF-1R activation both in vitro and in vivo. In recent in vivo experiments pro?IGF?I enhanced the immediate effect on muscle hypertrophy causing more than twice the increase in muscle mass than either mature IGF?I or IGF?IA at 1 week post?injection. The increased potency means that lower protein levels are needed for the same benefit. In studies to determine the minimum effective dose, it was found that a 3-fold lower level of pro-IGF-I production compared to mature IGF-I is sufficient to produce an equivalent hypertrophic response in muscle.